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Importantly, the rise of the numeracy was higher in the regions which were less hierarchical and had less dependent from the slavery trade e. Sine and Salum. Whereas areas with the opposite trends illustrated opposite tendencies e. Those patterns were further even more stimulated with the French colonial campaign. Only Liberia retained its independence, at the price of major territorial concessions. Since independence, many West African nations have been submerged under political instability, with notable civil wars in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Ivory Coast, and a succession of military coups in Ghana and Burkina Faso.
Since the end of colonialism, the region has been the stage for some brutal conflicts, including:. The Economic Community of West African Statesestablished in Mayhas defined the region of West Africa since as including the following 15 states: . Geopoliticallythe United Nations definition of Western Africa includes the preceding states with the addition of Mauritania which withdrew from ECOWAS incomprising an area of approximately 6.
Before European colonisationWest African countries such as those from the Senegambia region Senegal and the Gambia used to have a diverse wildlife including lionshippopotamuselephantsantelopesleopards etc. By the turn of the 20th-century, the Senegambia region lost most of its lion population and other exotic animals due to poaching.
By the s, the Gambian elephant population became extinct. That phenomenon was not only limited to the Senegambia region but affected much of West African as the region lost much of its "natural resources once tied so closely to its cultural identity. Poaching has stolen most of its wildlife. Although a small number of elephants survived in Nigeria, hunting, agricultural expansion and clearing of forest in that country drastically affected its wildlife population, particularly elephants.
Despite the historical damage that has been done to the region's wildlife populations, there are still some protected nature reserves within the region. Some of these include:.
West Africa is also home to several baobab trees and other plant life. Some baobab trees are several centuries old and form part of the local folklore, for example, a mythical baobab tree named Ngoye njuli in Senegal which is regarded as a sacred site by the Serer. The tree itself is rather majestic and looks like a huge phallus and a deformed animal or thing is protruding from it. It is said to be the dwelling place of a pangool.
Ngoye njuli is protected by the Senegalese authorities and attracts visitors.
In West Africa, as in other parts of Africa where the baobab tree is found, the leaves are mixed with couscous and eaten, the bark of the tree is used to make ropes, and the fruit and seeds used for drinks and oils.
West Africa is greatly affected by deforestationand has one of worst deforestation rate.
Mangroves are being killed off by pollution. Even wispy acacias are hacked away for use in cooking fires to feed growing families. Causes include logging, subsistence agricultureand the collection of fuelwood.
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According to a ThoughtCo publication authored Steve Nixalmost 90 percent of West Africa's original rainforest has been destroyed, and the rest "heavily fragmented and in a degraded state, being poorly used.
Overfishing is a major issue in West Africa. Besides reducing fish stocks in the region, it also threatens food security and the livelihoods of many coastal communities who largely depend on artisanal fishing. The overfishing generally comes from foreign trawlers operating in the region.
To combat the overfishing, Greenpeace has recommended countries reduce the number of registered trawlers operating in African waters, increase the monitoring and control and set up regional fisheries organizations. Furthermore, Liberia enacted a fisheries regulations Act in and installed a satellite-based monitoring system and Senegal enacted a fisheries code in In Cape Verde, the fishermen communities of Palmiera and Santa Maria have organized themselves to protect fishing zones.
Mozambique finally created a conservation area, including a coastline.
The vast majority of this land is plains lying less than meters above sea level, though isolated high points exist in numerous states along the southern shore of West Africa.
The northern section of West Africa narrowly defined to exclude the western Maghreb is composed of semi-arid terrain known as Sahela transitional zone between the Sahara and the savannahs of the western Sudan. The northwest African region of Mauritania periodically suffers country-wide plagues of locusts which consume water, salt and crops on which the human population relies.
Colonial boundaries are reflected in the modern boundaries between contemporary West African states, cutting across ethnic and cultural lines, often dividing single ethnic groups between two or more states.
The Trans-West African Coastal Highway is a transnational highway project to link 12 West African coastal states, from Mauritania in the north-west of the region to Nigeria in the east, with feeder roads already existing to two landlocked countries, Mali and Burkina Faso. The eastern end of the highway terminates at LagosNigeria. Of the sixteen, the most important hub and entry point to West Africa are Kotoka International Airportand Murtala Muhammed International Airportoffering many international connections.
Mental health problems are on the rise in West Africa, as they are in many other world regions. However, the subject is largely a taboo, and professional treatment is still rare. Despite the wide variety of cultures in West Africa, from Nigeria through to Senegalthere are general similarities in dresscuisinemusic and culture that are not shared extensively with groups outside the geographic region.
This long history of cultural exchange predates the colonization era of the region and can be approximately placed at the time of the Ghana Empire proper: Wagadou EmpireMali Empire or perhaps before these empires. The main traditional styles of building in conjunction with modern styles are the distinct Sudano-Sahelian style in inland areas, and the coastal forest styles more reminiscent of other sub-Saharan areas.
They differ greatly in construction due to the demands made by the variety of climates in the area, from tropical humid forests to arid grasslands and deserts.
Despite the architectural differences, buildings perform similar functions, including the compound structure central to West African family life or strict distinction between the private and public worlds needed to maintain taboos or social etiquette. In contrast to other parts of the continent south of the Sahara Desertthe concepts of hemming and embroidering clothing have been traditionally common to West Africa for centuries, demonstrated by the production of various breechesshirtstunics and jackets.
As a result, the peoples of the region's diverse nations wear a wide variety of clothing with underlying similarities.
Typical pieces of west African formal attire include the knee-to-ankle-length, flowing Boubou robe, Dashikiand Senegalese Kaftan also known as Agbada and Babarigawhich has its origins in the clothing of nobility of various West African empires in the 12th century. Traditional half-sleeved, hip-long, woven smocks or tunics known as fugu in Gurunsi, riga in Hausa - worn over a pair of baggy trousers-is another popular garment.
The best-known of these toga-like garments is the Kente made by the Akan people of Ghana and Ivory Coastwho wear them as a gesture of national pride. Scores of foreign visitors to West African nations e.
West African cuisines have had a significant influence on those of Western civilization for centuries; several dishes of West African origin are currently enjoyed in the Caribbean e. Although some of these recipes have been altered to suit the sensibilities of their adopters, they retain a distinct West African essence.
West Africans cuisines include fish especially among the coastal areasmeat, vegetables, and fruits-most of which are grown by the nations' local farmers. In spite of the obvious differences among the various local cuisines in this multinational region, the foods display more similarities than differences.
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The small difference may be in the ingredients used. Most foods are cooked via boiling or frying. Commonly featured, starchy vegetables include yamsplantainscassavaand sweet potatoes.
It is said that its exact origin may be from Yorubaland in Nigeria. The board game oware is quite popular in many parts of Southern. The word "Oware" originates from the Akan people of Ghana. However, virtually all African peoples have a version of this board game. Football is also a pastime enjoyed by many, either spectating or playing. The major national teams of West Africa, the Ghana national football teamthe Ivory Coast national football teamand the Nigeria national football team regularly win the Africa Cup of Nations.
Traditional folk music is also well-preserved. Some types of folk music are religious in nature such as the "Tassou" tradition used in Serer religion.
Griot artists and praise-singing is an important musical tradition related to the oral history of West African culture. Traditionally, musical and oral history as conveyed over generations by griots are typical of West African culture in MandeWolofSonghaySerer and, to some extent, Fula areas in the far west. A hereditary caste occupying the fringes of society, the griots were charged with memorizing the histories of local rulers and personages and the caste was further broken down into music-playing griots similar to bards and non-music playing griots.
Like Praise-singers, the griot's main profession was musical acquisition and prowess, and patrons were the sole means of financial support. Modern griots enjoy higher status in the patronage of rich individuals in places such as MaliSenegalMauritania and Guineaand to some extent make up the vast majority of musicians in these countries. In other areas of West Africa, primarily among the HausaMossiDagomba and Yoruba in the area encompassing Burkina Fasonorthern GhanaNigeria and Nigerthe traditional profession of non-hereditary praise-singers, minstrelsbards and poets play a vital role in extending the public show of power, lineage and prestige of traditional rulers through their exclusive patronage.
Like the griot tradition, praise singers are charged with knowing the details of specific historical events and royal lineages, but more importantly need to be capable of poetic improvisation and creativity, with knowledge of traditional songs directed towards showing a patron's financial and political or religious power. Competition between Praise-singing ensembles and artistes are high, and artists responsible for any extraordinarily skilled prose, musical compositions, and panegyric songs are lavishly rewarded with money, clothing, provisions and other luxuries by patrons who are usually politicians, rulers, Islamic clerics and merchants; these successful praise-singers rise to national stardom.
In the case of Niger, numerous praise songs are composed and shown on television in praise of local rulers, Islamic clerics, and politicians. Nollywood of Nigeria, is the main film industry of West Africa.
The Nigerian cinema industry is the second largest film industry in terms of number of annual film productions, ahead of the American film industry in Hollywood. HQ Mature Tube VIVA Gals Erosexus Mature Tube Lust Prehistoric Tube Attractive Tube Cuming Tube Tubes Here Ardent Mums Polar Porn HD Porn Gur Tube Splash Bonus Vid Ghetto Pearls Perpetual Tube Spectral Tube Tube Charm TubeZaur Black Sex Black Sex Mix Hot Voyeur Tube Tube Porn Box Brown Clipz HD Porno Chief Ebony Pulse TV Sex Black Porn HQ Butt Black Porn Ebony Love Dicks